S-parameters are mathematical representations of energy propagation within a multiport electrical network. It is written as a complex matrix file known as scattering parameters. The S-parameter file represents full combination of the reflection and transmission parameters in a multiport network with a frequency component. It gives an idea of how the DUT behaves with a signal in both forward and reverse directions.

**S-Parameters**

**S-parameter Formats **

### N port S-matrix

**Mix mode s-parameters**

### Touchstone format

william scott chesnut says

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Lokesh says

Good one. Thank you.